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LINK E RINGRAZIAMENTI LINKS E AGRADECIMENTOS ENLACES Y AGRADECIMIENTOS LINKS AND THANKS ENLLAÇOS I AGRAĎMENTS LINKOVI I BLAGODARNOST

 

INDEX
Players find in this section suggestions to apply to the game instruments and events of real diplomacy of the XX century. The index below works as a glossary, while we advice those who want to read the entire section to read all suggestions in the order they are written. Exemples are written in italic; an asterisc * means a situation that is only possible in the team game.
ATTENTION: whatever kind of agreement, in whatever form you write or make or register, it CANNOT be enforced by the GM. UP

 

SUGGESTIONS

TREATY
An instrument by which one or more States solve their controversies or coordinate their activities. It can be bylateral (stipulated by two States) or multilateral (stipulated by three or more States); secret (if known only to contracting parties) or public (if known to all players); registered (if sent to the GM) or not registered (if the parties prefere not to officially inform the GM); written (if formally contracted, i. e. by an exchange of emails containing the will of the parties to approve an identical text) or verbal (if not formally written, but intended as binding by both parties).
Turkey and Russia decide to share out the Balkans; once they reach a verbal agreement (bilateral) they decide to write down its clauses: Bulgaria will be Turkish, while Rumania will be owned by Russians. The complete text of the treaty, still secret, is emailed from one party to the other accompanied by its consentment ("I Declare to accept what follows:") and then sent back with the same formulation ("I Declare to accept what follows:"); the treaty is now written. The parties decide then to involve Austria-Hungary (giving it a right to Serbia) and Italy (giving it a right to Greece), so that the bilateral treaty becomes multilateral. The treaty is then emailed by each party to the GM in order to register it, but it is still secret. Finally, the parties decide to inform all players on the content of the treaty, which is now public. INDEX

MULTILATERAL CONVENTION (OR COVENANT OR CHARTER)
A treaty aiming to high and important civilization achievements, which is opened to signature of whatever Country may want to accede.
Great Britain and France decide to stipulate a treaty which would bind them to make a formal war declaration, to be presented before the current deadline, before an armed conflict among them could rise. They also state that whatever other power can sign the convention, accepting the same obbligations and rights. INDEX

TREATY OF ALLIANCE
The treaty of alliance states an identity of scopes for two or more States. Basic elements of the alliance are the "casus foederis", i. e. the fact activating the alliance, and the behaviour to be mantained by parties in that case. Depending of these two elements, there are offensive alliances (to attack together another State), defensive alliances (setting up a reciprocal help from another power), consultive alliances (parties engage themselves to consult each other before taking a certain decision) or any other kind of alliances, depending on the fantasy of the contracting parties.
Italy and Germany decide to make war on France; therefore, they stipulate a secret offensive alliance: both allies will attack France in 1902. In order to avoid an Austrian stab on the back, they also stipulate a second defensive alliance, public: if Austria-Hungary attacks one of the two allies, the other one will automatically consider itself in war against Vienna. INDEX

NONAGGRESSION PACT
A treaty stating that two or more States will not attack each other.
Russia and Turkey decide not to attack each other; they also state, as a guaranty, that no warship can enter the Black Sea. INDEX

UNEQUAL TREATIES
Those treaties containing clauses that are clearly unfavourable to a Country because the parties find themselves in very different positions, because of their different military force, their unequal capacity or experience in the game, etc.
Russia, which has by now accumulated 12 Units, summons Turkey to accept a treaty giving to the Russian Navy free access to the Straits; in exchange, Moscow engages itself to mantain a respectful behaviour in the peace conference. INDEX

PEACE TREATY
The peace treaty puts an end to hostilities among the signatory powers. A multilateral peace treaty concludes the Peace Conference at the end of a game.
Germany and Austria, after a 3-years-long war in which Germany seemed to prevail, decide to cease hostilities and to formalize a peace treaty: Austria-Hungary engages itself not to occupy with its Units all border sectors (Tyrol, Bohemia and Galizia) and both parties engage themselves on a nonaggression pact. INDEX

PROTOCOL
A supplementary which specifies, extends, limits or ratifies a treaty.
Austria and Germany, which already have an anti-Russian defensive alliance, decide to add to it a secret protocol limiting the "casus foederis" to the case of a Russian attack on the ground. INDEX

DECLARATION
A communication, of whatever content, issued by one or more States on a certain argument. It could be written (if issued by the declaring powers with emails having an identical content and addressed to all interested players) or verbal (if issued in an informal communication), unilateral (issued by a single capital), bilateral (by two capitals), multilateral (by three).
London and Paris simultaneously and formally address an email to all other powers declaring the neutrality of Belgium, warning that any violation of it will be interpreted as an aggression. INDEX

ENTENTE
It is a non formal treaty, parctically a draft of an agreement, the frame of which is not necessarily clear.
In 1904, France and Great Britain, after having overcame some difficulties related to navigation on the English Channel, after having issued a declaration on Belgian neutrality, with an intensive exchange of emails on possible effects of a war against Germany, informally agree to periodically consult each other on the international situation ("Entente cordiale"). INDEX

MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING*
Agreement on minor arguments binding both contracting States, not needing the Premier’s ratification.
During the final Peace Conference, a controversy between Italy and Russia rises on the sharing out of Istria. Both Foreign Ministers, delegated to the Conference, agree a border line without reporting the agreement to their respective Prime Ministers. The terms of their reciprocal understandingt are written down in a memorandum. INDEX

ARRANGEMENT
Non formal, temporary and compromissory agreement on a minor problem.
Turkey and Russia agreed on a nonaggression pact. In spring, Russia moves its Black Sea Fleet into the Straits, appearently breaking the pact. After, the Russian Fleet gets out into the Aegean Sea, so that Istanbul understands there was no aggressive intention of the Russians. The incident is over, but the two parties agree an arrangement: Russia engage itself not to build any naval Unit in Sevastapol. INDEX

MODUS VIVENDI
Non formal, temporary and compromissory agreement, whose basic aim is avoid a possible conflict.
Turkey and Russia agreed on a nonaggression pact. In spring, Russia moves its Black Sea Fleet into the Straits, breaking the pact. As a reaction, Turkey moves a Fleet into the Aegean Sea. Sankt Petersburg declares that its intention was to leave the Straits and to move the Fleet into the Aegean Sea, so that it really didn’t contravene the pact. A controversy is born: in order to avoid a war, Turkey decides to ignore the loss of a supply center and to leave the Aegean Sea as to permit to the Russian Fleet its exit into the Mediterranean Sea. It is a "modus vivendi" permitting to avoid war for at least an year. INDEX

EXCHANGE OF NOTES*
Non formal, however binding, agreement between two States, on minor problems. The notes are exchanged between the Ambassador accredited in a Capital and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the counterpart; the notes’ content is identical.
The Italian Ambassador to London, wishing to reach a Mediterranean agreement, writes an email to the British Foreign Minister, saying that "both parties engage themselves to mantain the status quo on the Mediterranean Sea, except for what concerns Tunis, which should become Italian". The Foreign Office answers saying that "both parties engage themselves to mantain the status quo on the Mediterranean Sea, except for what concerns Tunis, which will loose its independence". There has been an exchange of notes; nevertheless there has been no agreement, because the two texts were not identical. INDEX

PACTUM DE CONTRAHENDO
A clear engagemant of two or more States to negotiate a complex question, however not necessarily to come to an agreement.
Austria, Russia and Turkey are wishing to share out the four supply centers of the Balkan Peninsula; however the agreement seems to be very difficult. Consequently they solemnly engage themselves to try to come to an agreement until one day before the expiring of the frist deadline for movements. It is a "pactum de contrahendo". INDEX

COMPROMIS D’ARBITRAGE
It happens when two or more parties agree to present a controversy to a judge or to an arbitration board agreed by the parties. The parties to the controversy can agree that the judgement be binding, but it remains not sure whether the losing party will respect the arbitral decisions or not.
Turkey and Russia agreed on a nonaggression pact. In spring, Russia moves its Black Sea Fleet into the Straits, breaking the pact. As a reaction, Turkey moves a Fleet into the Aegean Sea. Sankt Petersburg declares that its intention was to leave the Straits and to move the Fleet into the Aegean Sea, so that it really didn’t contravene the pact. A controversy is born: in order to avoid a war, the parties decide to bring the question to an arbitration board formed by the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of France and Great Britain, asking them to decide, by right, how to solve the controversy. INDEX

PROCES VERBAL
It is the record of the plenipotentiaries’ works during bilateral or multilateral meetings.
The Italian Ambassador to Russia and the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs personally meet and write the following "procčs verbal" of their meeting: "The 4th of May, 1902, the Estraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador of the King of Italy, Piero Vinci, deposited in Sankt Petersburg, to the Government of the Czar of All Russia, the ratification instrument of the King of Italy of the Nonaggression Pact between Italy and Russia. On behalf of the Czar’s Government, the ratification instrument has been received by the Czar’s Minister of Foreign Affairs, Ivan Zemskov. After examination of the ratification instrument, it has been ascertained that it is written in the due form. In witness thereof, the present procčs verbal is signed in one copy in the Italian language".
INDEX

HOW TO WRITE A TREATY (ex. multilateral, secret Italian-Austrian-German alliance treaty)
1. Preamble.
In the preamble the scope and the nature of the Treaty are showed.
Their Majesties the Emperor of Austria and Hungary, the Emperor of Germany and the King of Italy, strongly desiring to increase the warranties of a general peace, to enforce the principle of the monarchic balance and to ensure by that mean the preservation of the social and political order in their respective Countries, agreed to sign a Treaty that, by its conservative and defensive nature, doesn’t pursue other scopes but taking protective measures against the dangers that may threaten the security of their States and the peace in Europe;
2. Plenipotentiaries and their credentials*. This indication is necessary when the treaty is not negotiated by the Chief of the Country, who appoints one of his diplomats as negotiator; in that case, it should be explained that his negotiating powers are issued directly by the Chief of State.
to that end they appointed the undersigned plenipotentiaries, whose powers, issued by the emails of their respective Chiefs of States (12th January 2003 for Italy, 12th January 2003 for Germany, 13th January 2003 for Austria-Hunagry), have been recognized in the good and due form, have agreed what follows.
3. Clauses. The clauses form the substance of the Treaty: programs, rights, duties, casus foederis, engagements, promises, etc. Generally, they are listed in articles.
Article 1
The High Contracting Parties mutually promise peace and friendship, and will enter into no alliance or engagement directed against any one of their States.
They engage to proceed to an exchange of ideas on political and economic questions of a general nature which may arise, and they further promise one another mutual support within the limits of their own interests.
Article 2
In case Italy, without direct provocation on her part, should be attacked by France for any reason whatsoever, the two other Contracting Parties shall be bound to lend help and assistance with all their forces to the Party attacked.
This same obligation shall devolve upon Italy in case of any aggression without direct provocation by France against Germany.
Article 3
If one, or two, of the High Contracting Parties, without direct provocation on their part, should chance to be attacked and to be engaged in a war with two or more Great Powers non-signatory to the present Treaty, the casus foederis will arise simultaneously for all the High Contracting Parties.
Article 4
In case a Great Power non-signatory to the present Treaty should threaten the security of the states of one of the High Contracting Parties, and the threatened Party should find itself forced on that account to make war against it, the two others bind themselves to observe towards their Ally a benevolent neutrality. Each of them reserves to itself, in this case, the right to take part in the war, if it should see fit, to make common cause with its Ally.
Article 5
If the peace of any of the High Contracting Parties should chance to be threatened under the circumstances foreseen by the preceding Articles, the High Contracting Parties shall take counsel together in ample time as to the military measures to be taken with a view to eventual cooperation.
They engage henceforward, in all cases of common participation in a war, to conclude neither armistice, nor peace, nor treaty, except by common agreement among themselves.
4. Possible specific clauses. Specific clauses may establish that the treaty is secret, that other parts may access to the treaty, that the treaty be registered by the GM.
Article 6
The High Contracting Parties mutually promise secrecy as to the contents and existence of the present Treaty. Other Parties may not adhere to the present Treaty.
5. Duration, resolutory clause, revisal, denunciation. The duration establishes how much time will the treaty be valid, the (possible) resolution clause indicates in which circumstances the treaty should be considered extinguished; timing and methods to the revisal of the treaty may be defined by specific clauses. A peace treaty has no duration nor revisal clauses.
Article 7
The present Treaty shall remain in force during the space of five years, dating from the day of the exchange of ratifications. It will end one year after the denunciation of one of the High Contracting Parties. It may be renewed for another five years starting by the fourth year of existence, by a simple written communication among the Parties.
Article 8
The agreement shall be emended only by the consent of all High Contracting Parties, by the mean of communications to be signed by the Chief of State and to be forwarded to the depositary State and CCed to the other Parties.
6. Clause for the resolution of controversies. Indicates the method to be used if any controversy arise, in order to correctly interpretate the clauses of the treaty.
Article 9
Any possible controversy on the interpretation of this treaty will be presented to the GM, which will decide on the basis of international law, being his decision bearing for the Parties.
7. Indications about the ratification* and the entry into power. This part of the treaty specifies whether the treaty should be ratified by the Chief of State (in the case it has been signed by a plenipotentiary) and when it enters into power. Declarations, exchange of notes, understandings, memorandums normally don’t require ratification.
Article 10
Their High Contracting Majesties shall forward by email the ratifications of the present Treaty to the depositary power (and CC them to the other High Contracting Parties) within one week. The Treaty enters into power after the deposit of the third ratification.
8. Signature, place, date. The signature consists of the charge and the name of the plenipotentiary put at the end of the text and accompanied, at the end or at the beginning of the email transmitting the treaty, by a formula of consensus related to the text.
In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Treaty and have annexed thereto the seal of their arms.
The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Austria and Hungary, Ferenc
the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Germany, Otto
the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Germany, Giuseppe
Done at Vienna, the twentieth day of the month of May of the year one thousand nine hundred and fifteen.
9. Languages. It is important to write in which languages the treaty is written and also which is the one (or which are the ones) considered as prominent in case the different texts lead to different interpretations.
Written in German, Italian and Hungarian, the first two equally baring witness.
10. Deposit of the original text. It’s the place where the original text is deposited: the depositary (who may be another State or the GM) engages itself to verify that the signatures are correct, to keep the instruments (emails) of ratification, to notify the Parties of the entry into force of the treaty, of the adhesion and denunciations of other Parties, to transmit the authentic copies of the treaty upon request of the Parties.
The present Treaty is deposited to the GM. INDEX

LINKS TO REAL TREATIES

Links to real treaties (1870-1939) to be used as models to yours (languages: FR, ES, UK, DE, PT, IT)
Tipe of treaty Parts Year Notes
Compromis d'arbitrage CH-FR 1924 Zones franches
Nichtangriffsvertrag DE-RU 1939 Ribbentrop-Molotov Vertrag
Nonaggression pact DE-RU 1939 Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact
Pacto de no agresión DE-RU 1939 Pacto Ribbentrop-Molotov
Peace treaty 1 DE-AT-BG-TR-RU 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Peace treaty - Peace treaty 2 ++ 1919 Versailles Treaty
Peace treaty UK-FR-IT-JP-GR-RO-YU-TR 1923 Treaty of Lausanne
Protocolo DE-RU 1939 Al pacto Ribbentrop-Molotov
Protokoll DE-RU 1939 Zum Ribbentrop-Molotov Vertrag
Tratado de paz CL-PE 1883 Tratado de Ancon
Tratado de paz 1 - Tratado de paz 2 US-ES 1898 Tratado de Paris
Tratado de paz 1 - Tratado de paz 2 CL-BO 1904 Y de amistad
Treaty of alliance FR-RU 1892 Secret alliance and military convention
Treaty of alliance 1 - Treaty of alliance 2 DE-RU 1914 Secret treaty

 

PRESS AGENCIES AND NEWSPAPERS

Country Press agencies Newspapers (language) in 1914
DE - DEUTSCHLAND 1849-1933 Wolf's Telegraphisches Büro Vorwärts! (DE)
IT - ITALIA 1853-1945 Stefani  
FR - FRANCE 1835-1944 Agence Havas
1944-2005 Agence France Presse
 
RU - ROSSIJA 1904-1914 SPTA
1914-1918 PTA
1918-1925 ROSTA
1925-1992 TASS
 
UK - UNITED KINGDOM 1851-2005 Reuters  

 

AMBASSADORS IN 1914
Read on the lines all the Ambassadors of each Country; read on the columns the Diplomatic Corps to that Capital. If you have more informations, write me .

  ATHINA BEIJING BEOGRAD BERLIN BERN / BERNE BRUXELLES / BRUSSELS BUCURESTI BUENOS AIRES
BELGIQUE / BELGIE      

Baron Beyen

 

X

   
DEUTSCHLAND      

X

 

Herr von Below - Saleske

   
FRANCE      

M. Jules Cabon

 

M. Klobukowski

   
ITALIA       M. R. Bollati        
ROSSIJA    

M. De Hartwig

M. Swerbeev

       
ÖSTERREICH - MAGYARORSZAG  

Arthur Edler von Rosthorn

Baron Vladimir von Giesl v. Gieslinen / Herr W. Von Storck*

Ladislaus Gróf Szögyényi - Marich von Magyar Szögyéni / Gottfried Prinz zu Hohenlohe - Waldenburg -  Schillingsfürst

 

Graf Ottoker Czernin

 
ROSSIJA    

M. De Hartwig

M. Swerbeev

       
SRBIJA    

X

Dr. M. Jovanović

       
UNITED KINGDOM

Hon. Wm. A. Erskine*

Sir John Jordan

Mr. C. L. Des Graz / Mr. Dayrell Crackanthorpe*

Sir Edward Goschen

Mr. Evelyn Grant Duff

Sir F. Villiers

Hon. A. Akers Douglas / G. Barclay

 
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA      

Mr. J. W. Gerard

     

John W. Garrett

* Chargé d’Affairs

  ČETTINJ

CHRISTIANIA

DEN HAAG

ISTANBUL

KŘBENHAVN

LISBOA

LONDON MADRID
BELGIQUE / BELGIE             Count de Lalaing  
BRASIL             Eduardo Lisboa / Antonio Fontura Xavier  
DENMARK        

X

  M. H. Grevenkop Castenskiold  
DEUTSCHLAND             Prinz Lichonowsky  
FRANCE             M. Paul Cambon / M. De Fleuriau*  
HELLAS             M. J. Gennadius  
ITALIA             Marchese Imperiali  
NEDERLAND     X       M. R. De Marees Van Swinderen  
NIHON             M. K. Inouye  
ÖSTERREICH - MAGYARORSZAG             Albert Graf Mensdorff - Pouilly - Dietrichstein  
ROSSIJA             Graf Benckendorff  
SCHWEIZ / SUISSE / SVIZZERA             M. Carlin  
TÜRKIYE       X     Tewfik Pasha  
UNITED KINGDOM

Count J. De Salis

Mr. M. De C. Findlay

Mr. H. G. Chilton

Mr H. H. D. Beaumont

Sir H. Lowther

Mr. L. D. Carnegie

X Sir Arthur Hardinge
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA    

Henry van Dyke

Henry Morgenthau

    Mr. Walter Hines Page  

* Chargé d’Affairs

 

PARIS

ROMA

SANKT PETERSBURG / PETROGRAD

SOFIJA

STOCKHOLM

TOKYO

WASHINGTON

VATICANUS

WIEN

BĂLGARIJA

 

M. Rizov

 

X

         

FRANCE

X

M. C. Barre

M. Maurice Paléologue

         

M. Dumaine

DEUTSCHLAND

Graf von Schön

Dr. H. von Flotow

Graf Pourtales

     

Graf Joachim von Bernsdorff

 

Herr von Tschirschky

ITALIA

 

X

           

Duca d’Avarna

ÖSTERREICH - MAGYARORSZAG

Nikolaus Gróf Széczen

Kajetan Mérey von Kapos - Mére

Friedrich Gróf Szŕpŕry von Muraszombat, Szechysziget und Szápár

   

Ladislaus Freiherr Müller von Szentgyöro

   

X

ROMĂNIA

               

M. Mavrocordato

ROSSIJA

M. Izvolskij

Sergej Dimitrevic Sazonov

X

       

Sergej Dimitrevic Sazonov

M. Šebeko / Knjaz’ Kudščev*

SRBIJA

Dr. M. R. Vesnić

 

Dr. M. Spalaiković

         

M. Jovan Janović

UNITED KINGDOM

Sir Francis Bertie

Sir Rennell Rodd

Sir George Buchanan

Sir H. Bax-Ironside

Mr. Esme Howard

Sir William Conyngham Greene

Cecil Spring-Rice / Mr. C. A. De R. Barclay*

 

Sir Maurice de Bunsen

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Myron Timothy Herrick / William Graves Sharp

 

Charles S. Wilson* / George T. Marye

     

X

   

* Chargé d’Affairs

(Based on "The First World War", by Keith Robbins and the websites
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com
http://eserver.org
http://etc.princeton.edu
http://library.thinkquest.org
www.blancmange.net
www.brazil.org.uk
www.firstworldwar.com
www.geocities.com
www.gwpda.org
www.lib.byu.edu
www.worldwar1.com
)

 

INDEX